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Notes from Learning React, 2nd Edition by Porcello & Banks
+
Notes from '''Learning React, 2nd Edition''' by Porcello & Banks and other sources
  
 
= Installation =
 
= Installation =
Line 1,738: Line 1,738:
 
$ npm install @babel/preset-env @babel/preset-react --save-dev
 
$ npm install @babel/preset-env @babel/preset-react --save-dev
 
</source>
 
</source>
 +
  
 
= React State Management =
 
= React State Management =
  
Reference
+
 
 +
= Reference =
 +
 
 
* [https://react-icons.netlify.com React Icons]
 
* [https://react-icons.netlify.com React Icons]
 +
* Personal blogs
 +
** [https://www.leighhalliday.com Leigh Halliday]
 +
** [https://www.robinwieruch.de Robin Wieruch]

Latest revision as of 09:36, 9 October 2019

Notes from Learning React, 2nd Edition by Porcello & Banks and other sources

Installation

// initialize a nodejs project (creates package.json)
$ npm init -y

// package manager 
$ npm install yarn

$ yarn install packagename

$ yarn remove packagename

JavaScript

Kangax compatibility table

Three ways to declare variables are

  1. const
  2. var
  3. let


Template string

console.log(`${lastName}, ${firstName} ${middleName}`);

document.body.innerHTML = `
<section>
  <header>
      <h1>The React Blog</h1>
  </header>
  <article>
      <h2>${article.title}</h2>
      ${article.body}
  </article>
  <footer>
      <p>copyright ${new Date().getYear()} | The React Blog</p>
  </footer>
</section>
`;


Function declaration vs function expression

declarations are hoisted

const f = function() {
};


Arrow functions

const lordify = function(firstName) {
  return `${firstName} of Canterbury`;
};

// equals

const lordify = firstName => `${firstName} of Canterbury`;


Returning an object

DON'T FORGET PARENTHESES!

const person = (firstName, lastName) => ({
  first: firstName,
  last: lastName
});

console.log(person("Flad", "Hanson"));


Arrow functions and scope

Reference


const tahoe = {
  mountains: ["Freel", "Rose", "Tallac", "Rubicon", "Silver"],
  print: function(delay = 1000) {
    setTimeout(function() {
      console.log(this.mountains.join(", "));
    }, delay);
  }
};

tahoe.print(); // Uncaught TypeError: Cannot read property 'join' of undefined

console.log(this); // Window {}

To solve this problem:

const tahoe = {
  mountains: ["Freel", "Rose", "Tallac", "Rubicon", "Silver"],
  print: function(delay = 1000) {
    setTimeout(() => {
      console.log(this.mountains.join(", "));
    }, delay);
  }
};

tahoe.print(); // Freel, Rose, Tallac, Rubicon, Silver

Destructing objects

const sandwich = {
  bread: "dutch crunch",
  meat: "tuna",
  cheese: "swiss",
  toppings: ["lettuce", "tomato", "mustard"]
};

const { bread, meat } = sandwich;

console.log(bread, meat); // dutch crunch tuna


const sandwich = {
  bread: "dutch crunch",
  meat: "tuna",
  cheese: "swiss",
  toppings: ["lettuce", "tomato", "mustard"]
};

let { bread, meat } = sandwich;

bread = "garlic";
meat = "turkey";

console.log(bread); // garlic
console.log(meat); // turkey

console.log(sandwich.bread, sandwich.meat); // dutch crunch tuna


destructuring parameter

const lordify = ({ firstname }) => {
  console.log(`${firstname} of Canterbury`);
};

const regularPerson = {
  firstname: "Bill",
  lastname: "Wilson"
};

lordify(regularPerson); // Bill of Canterbury


const regularPerson = {
  firstname: "Bill",
  lastname: "Wilson",
  spouse: {
    firstname: "Phil",
    lastname: "Wilson"
  }
};

const lordify = ({ spouse: { firstname } }) => {
  console.log(`${firstname} of Canterbury`);
};

lordify(regularPerson); // Phil of Canterbury


Destructuring arrays

const [firstAnimal] = ["Horse", "Mouse", "Cat"];

console.log(firstAnimal); // Horse

const [, , thirdAnimal] = ["Horse", "Mouse", "Cat"];

console.log(thirdAnimal); // Cat


Object literal enhancement

const name = "Tallac";
const elevation = 9738;

const funHike = { name, elevation };

console.log(funHike); // {name: "Tallac", elevation: 9738}
const name = "Tallac";
const elevation = 9738;
const print = function() {
  console.log(`Mt. ${this.name} is ${this.elevation} feet tall`);
};

const funHike = { name, elevation, print };

funHike.print(); // Mt. Tallac is 9738 feet tall


old vs. new: object syntax

// Old
var skier = {
  name: name,
  sound: sound,
  powderYell: function() {
    var yell = this.sound.toUpperCase();
    console.log(`${yell} ${yell} ${yell}!!!`);
  },
  speed: function(mph) {
    this.speed = mph;
    console.log("speed:", mph);
  }
};

// New
const skier = {
  name,
  sound,
  powderYell() {
    let yell = this.sound.toUpperCase();
    console.log(`${yell} ${yell} ${yell}!!!`);
  },
  speed(mph) {
    this.speed = mph;
    console.log("speed:", mph);
  }
};


Spread operator

Reference: Object Rest/Spread Properties for ECMAScript

const peaks = ["Tallac", "Ralston", "Rose"];
const canyons = ["Ward", "Blackwood"];
const tahoe = [...peaks, ...canyons];

console.log(tahoe.join(", ")); // Tallac, Ralston, Rose, Ward, Blackwood

Getting last element:

const peaks = ["Tallac", "Ralston", "Rose"];
const [last] = peaks.reverse();

console.log(last); // Rose
console.log(peaks.join(", ")); // Rose, Ralston, Tallac

Getting the rest of elements:

const lakes = ["Donner", "Marlette", "Fallen Leaf", "Cascade"];

const [first, ...others] = lakes;

console.log(others.join(", ")); // Marlette, Fallen Leaf, Cascade

function parameters:

function directions(...args) {
  let [start, ...remaining] = args;
  let [finish, ...stops] = remaining.reverse();

  console.log(`drive through ${args.length} towns`);
  console.log(`start in ${start}`);
  console.log(`the destination is ${finish}`);
  console.log(`stopping ${stops.length} times in between`);
}

directions("Truckee", "Tahoe City", "Sunnyside", "Homewood", "Tahoma");

combining objects:

const morning = {
  breakfast: "oatmeal",
  lunch: "peanut butter and jelly"
};

const dinner = "mac and cheese";

const backpackingMeals = {
  ...morning,
  dinner
};

console.log(backpackingMeals);

// {
//   breakfast: "oatmeal",
//   lunch: "peanut butter and jelly",
//   dinner: "mac and cheese"
// }

Asynchronous requests

Simple promises with fetch

fetch("https://api.randomuser.me/?nat=US&results=1")
  .then(res => res.json())
  .then(json => json.results)
  .then(console.log)
  .catch(console.error);


Async/Await

const getFakePerson = async () => {
  try {
    let res = await fetch("https://api.randomuser.me/?nat=US&results=1");
    let { results } = res.json();
    console.log(results);
  } catch (error) {
    console.error(error);
  }
};

getFakePerson();


Building Promises

const getPeople = count =>
  new Promise((resolves, rejects) => {
    const api = `https://api.randomuser.me/?nat=US&results=${count}`;
    const request = new XMLHttpRequest();
    request.open("GET", api);
    request.onload = () =>
      request.status === 200
        ? resolves(JSON.parse(request.response).results)
        : reject(Error(request.statusText));
    request.onerror = err => rejects(err);
    request.send();
  });

getPeople(5)
  .then(members => console.log(members))
  .catch(error => console.error(`getPeople failed: ${error.message}`))
);


Classes

prototypical inheritance

function Vacation(destination, length) {
  this.destination = destination;
  this.length = length;
}

Vacation.prototype.print = function() {
  console.log(this.destination + " | " + this.length + " days");
};

const maui = new Vacation("Maui", 7);

maui.print(); // Maui | 7 days

ES2015 way of declaring class

class Vacation {
  constructor(destination, length) {
    this.destination = destination;
    this.length = length;
  }

  print() {
    console.log(`${this.destination} will take ${this.length} days.`);
  }
}

const trip = new Vacation("Santiago, Chile", 7);

trip.print(); // Chile will take 7 days.

Simple inheritance

class Expedition extends Vacation {
  constructor(destination, length, gear) {
    super(destination, length);
    this.gear = gear;
  }

  print() {
    super.print();
    console.log(`Bring your ${this.gear.join(" and your ")}`);
  }
}

const trip = new Expedition("Mt. Whitney", 3, [
  "sunglasses",
  "prayer flags",
  "camera"
]);

trip.print();

// Mt. Whitney will take 3 days.
// Bring your sunglasses and your prayer flags and your camera


ES6 Modules

A module is a peice of reusable code that can easily be incorporated into other JavaScript files without causing variable collisions.

In text-helpers.js, two functions are exported:

export const print(message) => log(message, new Date())

export const log(message, timestamp) =>
  console.log(`${timestamp.toString()}: ${message}`)

Exporting only one variable from a module using export default

export default new Expedition("Mt. Freel", 2, ['water","snack"]);

Consuming using the import command

import { print, log } from "./text-helpers";
import freel from "./mt-freel";

print("printing a message");
log("logging a message");

freel.print();

scoping under different name:

import { print as p, log as l } from "./text-helpers";

p("printing a message");
l("logging a message");

import everything

import * as fns from './text-helpers`


CommonJS

the module pattern that is supported by all versions of Node, "Modules"

e.g.

const print(message) => log(message, new Date())

const log(message, timestamp) =>
console.log(`${timestamp.toString()}: ${message}`}

module.exports = {print, log}

CommonJS does not support an import statement; modules are mported with the require function

const { log, print } = require("./txt-helpers");


Functional Programming with JavaScript

What it means to be functional

JavaScript functions are first-class citizens -- they can do the same things that variables can do. Functions can represent data. e.g.

var log = function(msg) {
  console.log(msg);
}

log("In JS functions are variables");

// equivalent to

const log = msg => { console.log(msg); };

we can add them to objects:

const obj = {
  msg: "they can be added to objects like variables",
  log(msg) { console.log(msg); }
};

obj.log(obj.msg);

add them to arrays:

const messages = [
  "They can be inserted into arrays",
  message => console.log(message),
  "like variables",
  message => console.log(message)
];

messages[1](messages[0]); // They can be inserted into arrays
messages[3](messages[2]); // like variables

send to other functions as arguments:

const insideFn = logger => {
  logger("They can be sent to other functions as arguments");
};

insideFn(message => console.log(message));

// They can be sent to other functions as arguments

returned from other functions:

const createScream = function(logger) {
  return function(message) {
    logger(message.toUpperCase() + "!!!");
  };
};

const scream = createScream(message => console.log(message));

scream("functions can be returned from other functions");
scream("createScream returns a function");
scream("scream invokes that returned function");

// FUNCTIONS CAN BE RETURNED FROM OTHER FUNCTIONS!!!
// CREATESCREAM RETURNS A FUNCTION!!!
// SCREAM INVOKES THAT RETURNED FUNCTION!!!

// equivalent to (using arrows)

const createScream = logger => message => {
  logger(message.toUpperCase() + "!!!");
};

// when more than one arrows exist, there's a higher-order function

</source>


Imperative versus declarative

// making a string URL friendly


// IMPERATIVE way

const string = "Restaurants in Hanalei";
const urlFriendly = "";

for (var i = 0; i < string.length; i++) {
  if (string[i] === " ") {
    urlFriendly += "-";
  } else {
    urlFriendly += string[i];
  }
}

console.log(urlFriendly); // "Restaurants-in-Hanalei"


// DECLARATIVE way

const string = "Restaurants in Hanalei";
const urlFriendly = string.replace(/ /g, "-");

console.log(urlFriendly);

Reference: Declarative Programming wiki -- more about d/p paradigm

Declaring DOM example

// imperative approach

const target = document.getElementById("target");
const wrapper = document.createElement("div");
const headline = document.createElement("h1");

wrapper.id = "welcome";
headline.innerText = "Hello World";

wrapper.appendChild(headline);
target.appendChild(wrapper);


// declarative approach using a React component

const { render } = ReactDOM;

const Welcome = () => (
  <div id="welcome">
    <h1>Hello World</h1>
  </div>
);

render(<Welcome />, document.getElementById("target"));


Functional concepts

core concepts: immutability, purity, data transformation, higher-order functions, and recursion

Immutability

data mutation

let color_lawn = {
  title: "lawn",
  color: "#00ff00",
  rating: 0
};

function rateColor(color, rating) {
  color.rating = rating;
  return color;
}

console.log(rateColor(color_lawn, 5).rating); // 5
console.log(color_lawn.rating); // 5

in JS, function arguments are references to the actual data; we can rewrite so it does not harm the original data

const rateColor = function(color, rating) {
  return Object.assign({}, color, { rating: rating }); // take a blank object, copy copy to that object, and overwrite rating on the copy
};

console.log(rateColor(color_lawn, 5).rating); // 5
console.log(color_lawn.rating); // 4

// use the spread operator to copy the color into a new object and then overwrite its rating:
// equivalent to

const rateColor = (color, rating) => ({
  ...color,
  rating
});

adding elements to an array

let list = [{ title: "Rad Red" }, { title: "Lawn" }, { title: "Party Pink" }];

const addColor = function(title, colors) {
  colors.push({ title: title });
  return colors;
};

console.log(addColor("Glam Green", list).length); // 4
console.log(list.length); // 4

// use Array.concat to keep immutable

const addColor = (title, array) => array.concat({ title });

console.log(addColor("Glam Green", list).length); // 4
console.log(list.length); // 3

// equivalent using spread operator
// copies the original list to a new array and then adds a new object containing the color's title to that copy.

const addColor = (title, list) => [...list, { title }];


Pure Functions

function that returns a value that is computed based on its argument; treats arguments as immutable data, so nothing else is changed about the application

e.g. impure function

const frederick = {
  name: "Frederick Douglass",
  canRead: false,
  canWrite: false
};

function selfEducate() {
  frederick.canRead = true;
  frederick.canWrite = true;
  return frederick;
}

selfEducate();
console.log(frederick);

// {name: "Frederick Douglass", canRead: true, canWrite: true}

// still the same result

const selfEducate = person => {
  person.canRead = true;
  person.canWrite = true;
  return person;
};

console.log(selfEducate(frederick));
console.log(frederick);

// {name: "Frederick Douglass", canRead: true, canWrite: true}
// {name: "Frederick Douglass", canRead: true, canWrite: true}


have this function take an argument (now pure)

const frederick = {
  name: "Frederick Douglass",
  canRead: false,
  canWrite: false
};

const selfEducate = person => ({
  ...person,
  canRead: true,
  canWrite: true
});

console.log(selfEducate(frederick));
console.log(frederick);

// {name: "Frederick Douglass", canRead: true, canWrite: true}
// {name: "Frederick Douglass", canRead: false, canWrite: false}


an impure function --it changes DOM

function Header(text) {
  let h1 = document.createElement("h1");
  h1.innerText = text;
  document.body.appendChild(h1);
}

Header("Header() caused side effects");

In React, UI is expressed with pure functions. e.g.

const Header = props => <h1>{props.title}</h1>;

Guideline for writing pure functions

  1. at least one argument
  2. return a value or another function
  3. should not change or mutate any of its arguments


Data Transformations

via Array.map and Array.reduce


using Array.join

const schools = ["Yorktown", "Washington & Lee", "Wakefield"];

console.log(schools.join(", "));

// "Yorktown, Washington & Lee, Wakefield"

create a new array of the schools that begin with the letter "W"

const wSchools = schools.filter(school => school[0] === "W");

console.log(wSchools);
// ["Washington & Lee", "Wakefield"]

when removing an item from an array, use Array.filter over .pop() or .splice() because .filter() is immutable

const cutSchool = (cut, list) => list.filter(school => school !== cut);

console.log(cutSchool("Washington & Lee", schools).join(", "));

// "Yorktown, Wakefield"

console.log(schools.join("\n"));

// Yorktown
// Washington & Lee
// Wakefield

Array.map takes a function as its argument which will be invoked once for every item in the array, and whatever it returns will be added to the new array

const highSchools = schools.map(school => `${school} High School`);

console.log(highSchools.join("\n"));

// Yorktown High School
// Washington & Lee High School
// Wakefield High School

console.log(schools.join("\n"));

// Yorktown
// Washington & Lee
// Wakefield

e.g. return an object for every school

const highSchools = schools.map(school => ({ name: school }));

console.log(highSchools);

// [
// { name: "Yorktown" },
// { name: "Washington & Lee" },
// { name: "Wakefield" }
// ]

pure f(x) that changes one object in an array of objects

let schools = [
  { name: "Yorktown" },
  { name: "Stratford" },
  { name: "Washington & Lee" },
  { name: "Wakefield" }
];

const editName = (oldName, name, arr) =>
  arr.map(item => {
    if (item.name === oldName) {
      return {
        ...item,
        name
      };
    } else {
      return item;
    }
  });

let updatedSchools = editName("Stratford", "HB Woodlawn", schools);

console.log(updatedSchools[1]); // { name: "HB Woodlawn" }
console.log(schools[1]); // { name: "Stratford" }

// equivalent to

const editName = (oldName, name, arr) =>
  arr.map(item => (item.name === oldName ? { ...item, name } : item));

transform schools object into an array of schools:

const schools = {
  Yorktown: 10,
  "Washington & Lee": 2,
  Wakefield: 5
};

const schoolArray = Object.keys(schools).map(key => ({
  name: key,
  wins: schools[key]
}));

console.log(schoolArray);

// [
// {
// name: "Yorktown",
// wins: 10
// },
// {
// name: "Washington & Lee",
// wins: 2
// },
// {
// name: "Wakefield",
// wins: 5
// }
// ]


reduce and reduceRight are used to trasnform an array into any value, including a number, string, boolean, object, or even a function

maximum number in an array of numbers

const ages = [21, 18, 42, 40, 64, 63, 34];

const maxAge = ages.reduce((max, age) => {
  console.log(`${age} > ${max} = ${age > max}`);
  if (age > max) {
    return age;
  } else {
    return max;
  }
}, 0);

console.log("maxAge", maxAge);

// 21 > 0 = true
// 18 > 21 = false
// 42 > 21 = true
// 40 > 42 = false
// 64 > 42 = true
// 63 > 64 = false
// 34 > 64 = false
// maxAge 64

// equivalent to

const max = ages.reduce((max, value) => (value > max ? value : max), 0);

reduce takes two arguments: a callback function & an original value

reduceRight simply starts reducing from the end of the array rather than the beginning


transform an array into an object

const colors = [
  {
    id: "xekare",
    title: "rad red",
    rating: 3
  },
  {
    id: "jbwsof",
    title: "big blue",
    rating: 2
  },
  {
    id: "prigbj",
    title: "grizzly grey",
    rating: 5
  },
  {
    id: "ryhbhsl",
    title: "banana",
    rating: 1
  }
];

const hashColors = colors.reduce((hash, { id, title, rating }) => {
  hash[id] = { title, rating };
  return hash;
}, {});

console.log(hashColors);

// {
// "xekare": {
// title:"rad red",
// rating:3
// },
// "jbwsof": {
// title:"big blue",
// rating:2
// },
// "prigbj": {
// title:"grizzly grey",
// rating:5
// },
// "ryhbhsl": {
// title:"banana",
// rating:1
// }
// }

reducing an array with multiple instances of the same value to an array of unique values

const colors = ["red", "red", "green", "blue", "green"];

const uniqueColors = colors.reduce(
  (unique, color) =>
    unique.indexOf(color) !== -1 ? unique : [...unique, color],
  []
);

console.log(uniqueColors);

// ["red", "green", "blue"]


Higher-Order Functions

functions that can manipulate other functions; can take functions in as arguments, or return functions, or both

e.g.

const invokeIf = (condition, fnTrue, fnFalse) =>
  condition ? fnTrue() : fnFalse();

const showWelcome = () => console.log("Welcome!!!");

const showUnauthorized = () => console.log("Unauthorized!!!");

invokeIf(true, showWelcome, showUnauthorized); // "Welcome!!!"
invokeIf(false, showWelcome, showUnauthorized); // "Unauthorized!!!"

e.g. currying

const userLogs = userName => message =>
  console.log(`${userName} -> ${message}`);

const log = userLogs("grandpa23");

log("attempted to load 20 fake members");
getFakeMembers(20).then(
  members => log(`successfully loaded ${members.length} members`),
  error => log("encountered an error loading members")
);

// grandpa23 -> attempted to load 20 fake members
// grandpa23 -> successfully loaded 20 members

// grandpa23 -> attempted to load 20 fake members
// grandpa23 -> encountered an error loading members


Recursion

const countdown = (value, fn) => {
  fn(value);
  return value > 0 ? countdown(value - 1, fn) : value;
};

countdown(10, value => console.log(value));

// 10
// 9
// 8
// 7
// 6
// 5
// 4
// 3
// 2
// 1
// 0

recursion is well-suited for searching through data structures

const dan = {
  type: "person",
  data: {
    gender: "male",
    info: {
      id: 22,
      fullname: {
        first: "Dan",
        last: "Deacon"
      }
    }
  }
};

const deepPick = (fields, object = {}) => {
  const [first, ...remaining] = fields.split(".");
  return remaining.length
    ? deepPick(remaining.join("."), object[first])
    : object[first];
};

deepPick("type", dan); // "person"
deepPick("data.info.fullname.first", dan); // "Dan"

deepPick("data.info.fullname.first", dan); // "Deacon"

// First Iteration
// first = "data"
// remaining.join(".") = "info.fullname.first"
// object[first] = { gender: "male", {info} }

// Second Iteration
// first = "info"
// remaining.join(".") = "fullname.first"
// object[first] = {id: 22, {fullname}}

// Third Iteration
// first = "fullname"
// remaining.join("." = "first"
// object[first] = {first: "Dan", last: "Deacon" }

// Finally...
// first = "first"
// remaining.length = 0
// object[first] = "Deacon"


Composition

chaining

const template = "hh:mm:ss tt";
const clockTime = template
  .replace("hh", "03")
  .replace("mm", "33")
  .replace("ss", "33")
  .replace("tt", "PM");

console.log(clockTime);

// "03:33:33 PM"

both function pipes a value through two separate functions.

const both = date => appendAMPM(civilianHours(date));

// but hard to read, so better approach is to use higher order function

const compose = (...fns) => arg =>
  fns.reduce((composed, f) => f(composed), arg);

const both = compose(
  civilianHours,
  appendAMPM
);

both(new Date());

Putting it all together

ticking time

// Log Clock Time every Second
setInterval(logClockTime, 1000);

function logClockTime() {
  // Get Time string as civilian time
  let time = getClockTime();

  // Clear the Console and log the time
  console.clear();
  console.log(time);
}

function getClockTime() {
  // Get the Current Time
  let date = new Date();
  let time = "";

  // Serialize clock time
  let time = {
    hours: date.getHours(),
    minutes: date.getMinutes(),
    seconds: date.getSeconds(),
    ampm: "AM"
  };

  // Convert to civilian time
  if (time.hours == 12) {
    time.ampm = "PM";
  } else if (time.hours > 12) {
    time.ampm = "PM";
    time.hours -= 12;
  }

  // Prepend a 0 on the hours to make double digits
  if (time.hours < 10) {
    time.hours = "0" + time.hours;
  }

  // prepend a 0 on the minutes to make double digits
  if (time.minutes < 10) {
    time.minutes = "0" + time.minutes;
  }

  // prepend a 0 on the seconds to make double digits
  if (time.seconds < 10) {
    time.seconds = "0" + time.seconds;
  }

  // Format the clock time as a string "hh:mm:ss tt"
  return time.hours + ":" + time.minutes + ":" + time.seconds + " " + time.ampm;
}

REFACTORING using what we learned


in functional programs, use functions over values wherever possible; invoke the function to obtain the value when needed

const oneSecond = () => 1000;
const getCurrentTime = () => new Date();
const clear = () => console.clear();
const log = message => console.log(message);

three functions will be used to mutate the clock

  1. serializeClockTime - take a date object and returns a object for clock time that contains hours minutes, and seconds.
  2. civilianHours - takes the clock time object and returns an object where hours are converted to civilian time (1300 becomes 1:00)
  3. appendAMPM - take the clock time object and appends time of day, AM or PM, to that object.
const serializeClockTime = date => ({
  hours: date.getHours(),
  minutes: date.getMinutes(),
  seconds: date.getSeconds()
});

const civilianHours = clockTime => ({
  ...clockTime,
  hours: clockTime.hours > 12 ? clockTime.hours - 12 : clockTime.hours
});

const appendAMPM = clockTime => ({
  ...clockTime,
  ampm: clockTime.hours >= 12 ? "PM" : "AM"
});

higher order functions needed

  1. display - takes a target function and returns a function that will send a time to the target. In this eample the target will be console.log
  2. formatClock - takes a template string and uses it to return clock time formatted based upon the criteria from the string.
  3. prependZero -
const display = target => time => target(time);

const formatClock = format => time =>
  format
    .replace("hh", time.hours)
    .replace("mm", time.minutes)
    .replace("ss", time.seconds)
    .replace("tt", time.ampm);

const prependZero = key => clockTime => ({
  ...clockTime,
  [key]: clockTime[key] < 10 ? "0" + clockTime[key] : clockTime[key]
});


compose

const convertToCivilianTime = clockTime =>
  compose(
    appendAMPM,
    civilianHours
  )(clockTime);

const doubleDigits = civilianTime =>
  compose(
    prependZero("hours"),
    prependZero("minutes"),
    prependZero("seconds")
  )(civilianTime);

const startTicking = () =>
  setInterval(
    compose(
      clear,
      getCurrentTime,
      serializeClockTime,
      convertToCivilianTime,
      doubleDigits,
      formatClock("hh:mm:ss tt"),
      display(log)
    ),
    oneSecond()
  );

startTicking();


How React Works

React elements

React.createElement("h1", { id: "recipe-0" }, "Baked Salmon");

// <h1 id="recipe-0">Baked Salmon</h1>

// log:
{
  $$typeof: Symbol(React.element),
  "type": "h1",
  "key": null,
  "ref": null,
  "props": {id: "recipe-0", children: "Baked Salmon"},
  "_owner": null,
  "_store": {}
}


ReactDOM

contains tools necessary to render React element in the browser via render method

const dish = React.createElement("h1", null, "Baked Salmon");

ReactDOM.render(dish, document.getElementById("root"));

rendering array of elements

const dish = React.createElement("h1", null, "Baked Salmon");
const dessert = React.createElement("h2", null, "Coconut Cream Pie");

ReactDOM.render([dish, dessert], document.getElementById("root"));


Children

React.createElement(
  "ul",
  null,
  React.createElement("li", null, "2 lb salmon"),
  React.createElement("li", null, "5 sprigs fresh rosemary"),
  React.createElement("li", null, "2 tablespoons olive oil"),
  React.createElement("li", null, "2 small lemons"),
  React.createElement("li", null, "1 teaspoon kosher salt"),
  React.createElement("li", null, "4 cloves of chopped garlic")
);

// equivalent to

const items = [
  "2 lb salmon",
  "5 sprigs fresh rosemary",
  "2 tablespoons olive oil",
  "2 small lemons",
  "1 teaspoon kosher salt",
  "4 cloves of chopped garlic"
];

React.createElement(
  "ul",
  { className: "ingredients" },
  items.map((ingredient, i) => React.createElement("li", { key: i }, ingredient))
);


React Components

function IngredientsList({ items }) { // destructure items from props
  return React.createElement(
    "ul",
    { className: "ingredients" },
    items.map((ingredient, i) => React.createElement("li", { key: i }, ingredient)
  );
}

const items = [
  "2 lb salmon",
  "5 sprigs fresh rosemary",
  "2 tablespoons olive oil",
  "2 small lemons",
  "1 teaspoon kosher salt",
  "4 cloves of chopped garlic"
];

ReactDOM.render(
  React.createElement(IngredientsList, { items }, null),
  document.getElementById("root")
);

use functions to create components because class syntax is being deprecated.

React with JSX

React elements as JSX

Nested components

<IngredientsList>
  <Ingredient />
  <Ingredient />
  <Ingredient />
</IngredientsList>


ClassName

Since class is a reserved word in JavaScript, className is used to define the class attribute.


JavaScript Expressions

<h1>{title}</h1>

<input type="checkbox" defaultChecked="{false}" />


Evaluation

<h1>{"Hello" + title}</h1>

<h1>{title.toLowerCase().replace}</h1>

function appendTitle({ title }) {
  console.log(`${title} is great!`);
}


Mapping Arrays with JSX

<ul>
  {props.ingredients.map((ingredient, i) => (
    <li key="{i}">{ingredient}</li>
  ))}
</ul>


Babel

template file to use

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <meta charset="utf-8" />
    <title>React Examples</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <div id="root"></div>

    <!-- React Library & React DOM -->
    <script src="https://unpkg.com/react@16.8.6/umd/react.development.js"></script>
    <script src="https://unpkg.com/react-dom@16.8.6/umd/react-dom.development.js"></script>
    <script src="https://unpkg.com/@babel/standalone/babel.min.js"></script>

    <script type="text/babel">
      // JSX code here. Or link to separate JavaScript file that contains JSX.
    </script>
  </body>
</html>


Recipes as JSX

const data = [
  {
    name: "Baked Salmon",
    ingredients: [
      { name: "Salmon", amount: 1, measurement: "l lb" },
      { name: "Pine Nuts", amount: 1, measurement: "cup" },
      { name: "Butter Lettuce", amount: 2, measurement: "cups" },
      { name: "Yellow Squash", amount: 1, measurement: "med" },
      { name: "Olive Oil", amount: 0.5, measurement: "cup" },
      { name: "Garlic", amount: 3, measurement: "cloves" }
    ],
    steps: [
      "Preheat the oven to 350 degrees.",
      "Spread the olive oil around a glass baking dish.",
      "Add the yellow squash and place in the oven for 30 mins.",
      "Add the salmon, garlic, and pine nuts to the dish.",
      "Bake for 15 minutes.",
      "Remove from oven. Add the lettuce and serve."
    ]
  },
  {
    name: "Fish Tacos",
    ingredients: [
      { name: "Whitefish", amount: 1, measurement: "l lb" },
      { name: "Cheese", amount: 1, measurement: "cup" },
      { name: "Iceberg Lettuce", amount: 2, measurement: "cups" },
      { name: "Tomatoes", amount: 2, measurement: "large" },
      { name: "Tortillas", amount: 3, measurement: "med" }
    ],
    steps: [
      "Cook the fish on the grill until cooked through.",
      "Place the fish on the 3 tortillas.",
      "Top them with lettuce, tomatoes, and cheese."
    ]
  }
];

// A function component for an individual Recipe
function Recipe (props) {
  ...
}

// A function component for the Menu of Recipes
function Menu (props) {
  return (
    <article>
      <header>
        <h1>{props.title}</h1>
      </header>
<div className="recipes">
  {props.recipes.map((recipe, i) => (
    <Recipe
      key={i}
      name={recipe.name}
      ingredients={recipe.ingredients}
      steps={recipe.steps}
    />
  ))}
// equivalent to
{
  props.recipes.map((recipe, i) => <Recipe key={i} {...recipe} />);
}
</div>
    </article>
  );
}

// A call to ReactDOM.render to render our Menu into the current DOM
ReactDOM.render(
  <Menu recipes={data} title="Delicious Recipes" />,
  document.getElementById("root")
);


we can access title & recipes vars directly, so vars don't have to be prefixed with props:

function Menu({ title, recipes }) {
  return (
    <article>
      <header>
        <h1>{title}</h1>
      </header>
      <div className="recipes">
        {recipes.map((recipe, i) => (
          <Recipe key={i} {...recipe} />
        ))}
      </div>
    </article>
  );
}


code for the component for each individual recipe:

function Recipe({ name, ingredients, steps }) {
  return (
    <section id={name.toLowerCase().replace(/ /g, "-")}>
      <h1>{name}</h1>
      <ul className="ingredients">
        {ingredients.map((ingredient, i) => (
          <li key={i}>{ingredient.name}</li>
        ))}
      </ul>
      <section className="instructions">
        <h2>Cooking Instructions</h2>
        {steps.map((step, i) => (
          <p key={i}>{step}</p>
        ))}
      </section>
    </section>
  );
}


React fragments

function Cat({ name }) {
  return (
    <React.Fragment>
      <h1>The cat's name is {name}</h1>
      <p>He's good.</p>
    </React.Fragment>
  );
}

// equivalent to

function Cat({ name }) {
  return (
    <>
      <h1>The cat's name is {name}</h1>
      <p>He's good.</p>
    </>
  );
}


Intro to webpack

  • Code splitting
  • Minification
  • Feature flagging
  • Hot module replacement (HMR)
  • Modularity
  • Composition
  • Speed
  • Consistency


Installing webpack

$ npm install --save-dev webpack@next webpack-cli


Installing Babel dependencies

$ npm install babel-loader @babel/core --save-dev


Specify Babel presets

$ npm install @babel/preset-env @babel/preset-react --save-dev


React State Management

Reference